Before you go: Traveller's diarrhea
Traveller's Diarrhea is the most common ailment amongst travellers to the tropics. It goes by several names, depending upon where you succumb, such as Montezuma's Revenge, Delhi Belly and Seeping Slickness! Your risk of developing diarrhea depends upon:
- your destination (some places are worse than others)
- the precautions you take
- your style of travel
- luck (some people are luckier than others)
You may become infected through the water you drink, the ice cubes you use, the food that is washed by water such as fruits and vegetables, people handling your food, the flies landing on your food, and food that is not adequately cooked.
There are many causes of diarrhea, most of which are infectious. The commonest causative organisms are bacteria, such as E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter. Parasites or protozoa such as Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Cyclospora and cryptosporidium occur much less frequently. Cholera, a bacterium, is a very rare cause of diarrhea amongst travellers. Sometimes, diarrhea is not due to infection, but perhaps too much sun, fruit or booze.
Diarrhea may be mild with just some cramps and a few loose bowel movements per day, or much more severe. Dysentery refers to diarrhea associated with blood and pus and fever, and it is usually caused by one of the bacteria. This is the sort of experience that makes some people choose Florida over Mexico!
Your best bet is to follow the Mexican proverb "Boil it, bottle it, peel it, cook it .... or forget it" Having said that, this is not always practical, affordable, or polite, depending upon your situation.
To purify water, the best method is to boil it. It is probably not necessary to boil it for 10 minutes, which might result in you losing most of the water. Rather, just bringing it to a rolling boil is sufficient. Not everyone is completely trusting of bottled water in the tropics. You should ensure that there is an unbroken seal on the bottle. Iodine, which is available as drops or crystals, will adequately purify your water, but might leave an unpleasant taste. Adding some Coolade (it was around in the 60s) will help eliminate that taste. Pristine (chlorine dioxide) works well against all of the offending organisms and does not leave an aftertaste.
There are several water "purifiers" on the market. They vary in size, price, mechanism and duration of action. For a good selection, you might consider visiting Mountain Equipment Coop or some other well-equipped camping store.
Vegetables can be cooked, or washed in iodine (bleach) and then rinsed with safe water. Meat should be well-cooked, as undercooked beef, pork or fish can be the source of tapeworms, which may grow to thirty feet in length.
Patients ask if they can eat street food. I say sure, as long as it is cooked, well cooked, and cooked before your very own eyes. It’s part of the fun of travelling!
In spite of the above advice and precautions, up to 40% of travellers to the tropics will get the runs. So let's talk about self treatment.
Hopefully after some of the above treatment, you are all better. But this is not always the case.
"Travel expands the mind.... but loosens the bowels!"